Practice talks for the PAA Conference.
Presenter: Andrea Tilstra.
Title: "Differences in Determinants: U.S. Labor Induction Rates and Maternal Risk Factors across Race/Ethnicity."
Abstract: Labor induction rates have increased across all U.S. states and for all race/ethnic groups since the 1990s. Yet, maternal risk factors for induction have not concurrently increased, and differ by maternal race/ethnicity. The pervasiveness of structural racism in obstetric care results in inadequate care and poor maternal and child health outcomes for women of historically marginalized race/ethnic groups. In this paper we focus on induction of labor, an obstetric intervention that when used unnecessarily can increase risk of negative outcomes for women and infants. We aim to assess whether state-level measures of maternal risk (e.g., proportion of mothers with hypertension) explain race/ethnic-specific trends in labor induction rates. We use data from the National Vital Statistics Systems restricted birth data to analyze race/ethnic-specific trajectories of labor induction rates for all 50 U.S. states and the District of Columbia from 1990 to 2017. We use fixed effects models to assess how state-level risk factors account for the increases in labor induction rates over time. Preliminary results indicate that state-level indicators of risk, including proportion of mothers with hypertension, with diabetes, and teen births, are associated with rising labor induction rates among white women, but these factors do not explain increases among Black or Latina women. These results suggest that maternal risk does not fully explain increases in induction rates, particularly for Black and Latina women.
Author list: Andrea M. Tilstra, Ryan K. Masters, Daniel H. Simon, Kate Coleman-Minahan.
Presenter: Brachel Champion
Title: "Who Benefits Most from a Same-Race Mentor? Optimal Matching in Big Brothers Big Sisters."
Abstract: In many youth mentoring organizations, minority mentees often express preferences for a same-race mentor. Due to supply constraints, agencies are often forced to make choices about how to allocate mentors to youth. Therefore, it is important to understand the ways in which a same-race match improves youth outcomes, and who benefits most. Using data from the largest youth mentoring program in the U.S., Big Brothers Big Sisters, we investigate the effect of same-race matching on changes in a wide range of youth outcomes related to self-esteem, education, and risk attitudes after a year of mentorship. After demonstrating that there is little evidence of selection into same-race matches in our data, we use two complementary identification strategies that leverage within- and between-agency variation in same-race matches. We find that Black and Hispanic youth experience improvements in self-perceived school ability, education expectations, and truancy, with no evidence that white youth experience negative outcomes.
Author List: Brachel Champion, Zachary Szlendak, and CoreyWoodruff