Events

Upcoming Events

Monday, November 2nd 12:00 pm - 1:00 pm, Zoom link: https://cuboulder.zoom.us/j/98876839061 - email ibs-contact@colorado.edu for password.
Jacob Flaws, Steve Graham, Myron Gutmann, and Dick Jessor

Abstract: Since its founding more than 60 years ago, the Institute of Behavioral Science has had a long, complicated, distinguished, and sometimes quarrelsome history. During that time, it has pursued a mission dedicated to studying and finding solutions to societal problems. In this presentation we outline the Institute’s history and discuss its intellectual leaders and some of its most important contributions. In doing so we focus on the ways that it has developed a structure and research agenda, and how it has confronted the challenge of achieving its interdisciplinary goals in a changing local, national and global scientific environment.

Bio: Jacob Flaws is an Instructor in the Department of History at CU Boulder, where he received his Ph.D. in the spring of 2020, with a dissertation entitled “The Spaces of Treblinka.”

Steve Graham was Administrative Officer at the Institute of Behavioral Science until 2015.

Myron Gutmann is Professor of History and Director of the Institute of Behavioral Science at the University of Colorado Boulder, where he has been a faculty member since 2014.

Richard Jessor is Distinguished Professor of Behavioral Science and Professor of Psychology, Emeritus at CU Boulder, where he was Director of the Institute of Behavioral Science from 1980 until 2001


Monday, November 9th 12:00 pm - 1:00 pm, Zoom link: https://cuboulder.zoom.us/j/98876839061 - email ibs-contact@colorado.edu for password
Rich Nielsen

Abstract: Why do states promote conspiracy theories? Previous scholarship has largely focused on the demand for conspiracy theories in democratic settings, neglecting the role that conspiracy theories play in autocracies. We ask two questions about the supply of conspiracy theories in society. Are conspiracy theories prevalent because of local culture or is their supply influenced by political leaders and institutions? And if leaders and institutions matter, are state-promoted conspiracy theories best understood as messaging about elite fears and priorities, or as distraction to deflect criticism away from the regime? To answer these questions, we develop a model for detecting conspiracy theories in the Arabic-language text of Egyptian newspapers. We compare the supply of conspiracy theories in a state-owned Egyptian newspaper, al-Ahram, to an independent Egyptian newspaper, al-Masry al-Youm, between 2005 and 2015. We find evidence that institutions matter: the content and prevalence of conspiracy theories varies by newspaper and changes as state institutions change.

Bio: Richard Nielsen is an Associate Professor of Political Science at MIT. He completed his PhD (Government) and AM (Statistics) at Harvard University, and holds a BA from Brigham Young University. His book, Deadly Clerics (Cambridge University Press), uses statistical text analysis and fieldwork in Cairo mosques to understand the radicalization of jihadi clerics in the Arab world. Nielsen also writes on international law, the political economy of human rights, political violence, and political methodology. Some of this work is published or forthcoming in The American Journal of Political Science, International Studies Quarterly, Political Analysis, and Sociological Methods and Research. In 2017-2019 he is an Andrew Carnegie fellow, and his work has previously been supported by the National Science Foundation, the Harvard Academy for International and Area Studies, and the Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs.


Thursday, November 12th 12:30 pm - 1:30 pm, Zoom link: https://cuboulder.zoom.us/j/98488473784
Elizabeth Wrigley-Field

Abstract: Many people are now familiar with the 1918 flu -- the last pandemic on the scale of the current crisis -- which ultimately killed perhaps 50 million people worldwide. Fewer know that white mortality during the 1918 pandemic was less than Black mortality nearly every year, as late as the 1930s. The same pattern is likely to hold during the COVID-19 pandemic: my demographic models show that, unless at least 400,000 excess white deaths occur, white mortality in 2020 will still be less than Black mortality has ever been. I explore the disjuncture between the actions undertaken to fight COVID and the actions *not* undertaken to fight racism, and argue for health-based reparations for racism in the United States. 

Bio: I am a formal demographer and a sociologist. My work integrates demographic methods, designed to shift perspectives between population-level patterns and individual-level transitions between social statuses, with a sociological approach to the study of inequality, in which multiple dimensions of stratification interact in specific settings.

My dissertation concerns mortality selection: disadvantaged members of a cohort tend to die at the youngest ages, leading cohorts to be increasingly selected for social advantages as they age. I use formal, statistical, and simulation analysis to reveal new challenges in recovering information about inequality in the presence of such selection. My work explores how demographic theory can be revised to incorporate more substantively realistic models of heterogeneity and inequality within populations.

My work brings formal demographic techniques to the sociology of inequality and sociologically informed concerns about hidden dimensions of racial inequality to formal demography

Sponsored By: CU Population Center, Department of Sociology (UCB)

Monday, November 16th 12:00 pm - 1:00 pm, Zoom link: https://cuboulder.zoom.us/j/98876839061 - email ibs-contact@colorado.edu for password
Jamie Alves

Abstract: This presentation focus on some extralegal and space-based forms of resistance against police terror within Latin American geographies of antiblackness. It is a relational analysis of marginal and insurgent black political life to face enduring forms of racial domination in Cali/Colombia and São Paulo/Brazil. If the space of civil society is unable to make black suffering legible and to redress racial injury, how should black resistance look like in these spatialities of antiblackness? Based on long-term ethnographic research, we will explore three related issues: a) the programs of spatial discipline aimed to curb gang violence, such as community police, evangelical crusades, and NGO's pedagogical initiatives; b) the mythologies around "cops' fragility" and the spatial praxis of black young men engaged in retaliatory violence against the police; and c) the alternative spatialities that emerge from such territorial contest. I ask: how might a focus on gang violence as insurgent politics change/expand our understanding of urban politics of resistance (usually framed through the law-abiding lenses of "the right to the city")? How is everyday life reinvented within the margins of an anti-black city? How can we ethically respond to police terror when "terror" is part of the very constitution of citizenship and its regime of rights?

Bio: Jaime Amparo Alves teaches Black Studies at the University of California, Santa Barbara. His is the author of The Anti-Black City: Police Terror and Black Urban Life in Brazil (U of Minnesota press, 2018). His current research focuses on racialized geographies of policing, black ungovernability and urban security politics in Colombia.


Monday, November 30th 12:00 pm - 1:00 pm, Zoom link: https://cuboulder.zoom.us/j/98876839061 - email ibs-contact@colorado.edu for password
George Robson

Abstract: The first incidence of domestic terrorism in Michigan happned on a sunny May day in 1927 in Bath Township (located 12 miles north of Lansing). 38 elementary school-aged children and 6 adults were killed and 58 others were injured. Learn about the school board treasurer’s horrific crime against a community he believed had wronged him, and how the community coped with the aftermath of this destructive act.

Bio: George Robson is the son of two of the students who survived the Bath Schoolhouse Disaster. His mother was a sophomore and his father was the senior class president. George has researched the history of the incident extensively and will present a photographic remembrance and history of this event.


Tuesday, December 8th 10:00 am - 11:30 am, Zoom log in information TBD
Jane Menken, Andrea Tilstra

The Population Association of America is hosting a panel session entitled "PAA Presidential Address Topics: Where Are They Now?," featuring four past PAA Presidents, including our own Distinguished Professor of Sociology, Jane Menken. The panel also features four demography PhD students as discussants, including CU Sociology PhD student Andrea Tilstra. We hope to see many of you there (virtually!) on Tuesday, December 8 from 10-11:30 (MST). For more info on the panel, including how to register, please visit this link to the PAA website

Past Events

Thursday, October 29th 12:30 pm - 1:30 pm, Zoom link: https://cuboulder.zoom.us/j/99138645922
Jennifer Hirsh and Shamus Khan

Abstract: TBD

Bio: TBD 

Sponsored By: Department of Anthropology, Department of Women and Gender Studies, Department of Sociology, and the Department of Health and Behavioral Sciences at CU Denver

Monday, October 26th 12:00 pm - 1:00 pm, Zoom link: https://cuboulder.zoom.us/j/98876839061, Email ibs-contact@colorado.edu for password
Ryan Brown

Presentation Video

Abstract: More than three-quarters of a billion people live without a close source of clean water. While, the immediate impact of clean water access on infant mortality is well documented, there is very limited evidence on the long-term effect of chlorinated water. We exploit exogenous variation created by the implementation of a major clean water reform in Mexico in 1991, Programa de Agua Limpia (PAL), to investigate the impact of exposure to chlorinated water early in life on cognitive and physical development. We estimate that experiencing a one standard deviation reduction in childhood diarrhea mortality rates from PAL throughout infancy leads to ~6% increase in cognitive assessment score and .11 standard deviation increase in height in adolescence. We also confirm that the effects on human capital persist to at least early adulthood and lead to increased hourly earnings. 

Bio: Ryan Brown's research interests span applied microeconomics including development economics, labor economics, health economics, economic demography, and political economy. His work has primarily focused on applying econometric techniques to population-representative data in both developed and developing country settings, to examine how changes in the social, physical, and/or economic environment can have a persistent impact on health, preferences, and human capital accumulation.

Sponsored By: CU Population Center

Monday, October 19th 12:00 pm - 1:00 pm, Zoom link: https://cuboulder.zoom.us/j/98876839061, Email ibs-contact@colorado.edu for password
Valery Dzutsati

Presentation Video

Abstract: Why might elites and ordinary individuals support diversionary domestic conflict? Previous researchers have emphasized the lack of popularity of leaders and their ability to scapegoat foreign countries or domestic groups to boost their chances of political survival. This study explores the propensity of elites for policies of targeting domestic groups and the popular support for such actions. I argue that high income inequality in the society and economic communitarianism among its population form the social basis for diversionary domestic conflict. When income inequality in society is particularly high, the elites have incentives to divert popular discontent toward culturally alien minorities. High income inequality also raises the expectations for the state assistance among the low-income strata, who regard the alien minorities as a potential target for resource extraction. I use sentiment analysis of news articles corpus for the period of 21 years, economic, and survey data to show the evolution of the attitudes of Russians toward the secession of Chechnya to provide support for the proposed theory and find significant support for it.

Bio: I am a Postdoctoral Researcher in the Institute of Behavioral Science at the University of Colorado Boulder. I received my Ph.D. in Political Science from Arizona State University in 2017. My research interests span civil and interstate conflict, collective action, religion and politics, and methods with an empirical focus on Eurasia and Eastern Europe. My peer-reviewed articles appear in Caucasus Survey, Nationalities Papers, Politics and Religion, Post-Soviet Affairs, and Social Science Quarterly.


Monday, October 12th 12:00 pm - 1:00 pm, Zoom link: https://cuboulder.zoom.us/j/98876839061 - email ibs-contact@colorado.edu for password.
Julie DeMuth (UCAR)

Presentation Video 

Abstract: Despite tremendous advances in weather forecasting, people still experience significant harm to life, property, and well-being from hazardous weather. Although the roots and causes of these negative effects are multiple, one contribution toward reducing societal harm is to develop knowledge about how weather forecast information influences people’s risk perceptions and response behaviors. Moreover, weather predictions are intrinsically uncertain due to limited predictability of the atmosphere, and thus there is increasing emphasis on evaluating weather forecasts that explicitly convey uncertainty information. The focus of such research typically is on members of the public, which are an essential population to study. However, weather forecasters also receive different types of information about potential weather threats, and they too must assess the risk and make decisions, making them an additional, important population of study. In this presentation, I will discuss research to understand how National Weather Service forecasters and members of the public perceive and respond to risks of different types of hazardous weather (tornadoes, fire weather, and winter weather), and how developing this knowledge can improve risk communication efforts. 

Bio: Julie Demuth is a research scientist at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) in the Mesoscale and Microscale Meteorology (MMM) Lab with the Weather Risks and Decisions in Society (WRaDS) research group. She has been working for nearly 15 years on integrating social science research with the meteorological research and practitioner communities. With a hybrid background in atmospheric science and in communication, Julie conducts research on hazardous weather risk communication, risk perceptions, and responses; her work is with both experts, such as weather forecasters, and members of the public. Her work centers on understanding how forecast information, in conjunction with other factors, influence what people think and feel and how they respond. Some of Julie’s current work includes (1) studying how people’s previous weather experiences change the way they perceive future weather risks, (2) analyzing Twitter data to understand people’s evolving risk assessments as hurricane and tornado threats unfold in space and time, (3) exploring people’s perspectives on probabilistic tornado warnings, and (4) identifying NWS forecasters’ interpretations of and needs for deterministic and ensemble guidance from convection-allowing models. Prior to being at NCAR, Julie worked for three years in Washington DC as a Program Officer at the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine for the Board on Atmospheric Sciences and Climate. Julie received her BS in meteorology from the University of Nebraska-Lincoln, her MS in atmospheric science from Colorado State University, and her PhD in public communication and technology from Colorado State University.

Sponsored By: Natural Hazards Center

Thursday, October 8th 5:00 pm - 6:30 pm, Zoom link: https://cuboulder.zoom.us/j/95605665922 - email ibs-contact@colorado.edu for password
Rubén Rumbaut

Presentation Video

Suggested readings and other resources

The CUPC Jane Menken Distinguished Lecture in Population Studies is a biennial event which recognizes the enormous contribution that Dr. Jane Menken has made to the study of Population and to University of Colorado Boulder with a lecture by a distinguished demographer.

Title: The Wall: American Nativism, Immigration Policy, and the Great Exclusion of 2017-2020

Abstract:  Much of American history can be seen as a dialectic of processes of inclusion and exclusion, and in extreme cases of expulsions and forced removals. An iconic feature of the American story has been the remarkable capacity of this self-professed “Nation of Immigrants” to absorb, like a giant global sponge, tens of millions of newcomers from all classes, cultures and countries. But this phenomenal accomplishment has historically coexisted with a seamier side of the process of nation building, expansion and design. Since colonial times nativist ideologies have framed "foreigners" as threats, demagogues have fanned moral panics about immigrants, and state policies have sought to control the inflow of newcomers or to keep them out of the nation altogether.

This talk will focus on the Great Exclusion of the period spanning the Trump Administration, 2017-2020. A rarity in U.S. history, candidate Trump ran on immigration explicitly as a nativist candidate and won the presidency in the electoral college. “The wall” remains the signature part of his message, although few miles of new wall have been built along the southern border to date (and not a penny has been paid by Mexico), and no legislation has been passed by Congress. Nonetheless, the Trump administration has radically restricted immigration to the United States through hundreds of administrative actions and executive orders, drastically reducing legal family-based immigration, cutting refugee admission to its lowest level since the 1980 Refugee Act was passed, effectively ending asylum in the United States, and causing enormous backlogs in citizenship applications that are preventing eligible immigrants from becoming naturalized. These restrictive policy actions have been further extended and amplified by the administration within the context of the 2020 covid-19 pandemic, adding up to “the most sweeping ban on immigration in American history.”

Bio: Rubén G. Rumbaut is Distinguished Professor of Sociology at the University of California, Irvine. Over the past few decades he has directed seminal empirical studies of immigrants and refugees in the U.S., from the principal studies of the resettlement of refugees from Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia in the 1980s; to the landmark "Children of Immigrants Longitudinal Study" (with Alejandro Portes) since 1991; the "Immigration and Intergenerational Mobility in Metropolitan Los Angeles" study in the 2000s; and "The Second Generation in Middle Adulthood" in the 2010s (with Cynthia Feliciano). Among numerous publications, he is the coauthor of Immigrant America: A Portrait, and Legacies: The Story of the Immigrant Second Generation, which won the American Sociological Association’s top award for Distinguished Scholarship, and the Thomas and Znaniecki Award for best book in the immigration field. A recipient of the Distinguished Career Award from the ASA’s International Migration Section, he is a fellow of the National Academy of Education and the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. [UCI website: http://www.faculty.uci.edu/profile.cfm?faculty_id=4999]

Sponsored By: CU Population Center

Monday, September 28th 12:00 pm - 1:00 pm, Zoom link: https://cuboulder.zoom.us/j/98876839061 - email ibs-contact@colorado.edu for password
Jim Elliott

Presentation Video 

Abstract: In the years ahead, U.S. society faces two major challenges already underway:  rising wealth inequality and rising natural disaster costs.  To understand their intersection, this talk will first discuss the need to move away from an event-centered approach to disasters to engage a more longitudinal, population-centered approach.  It will then present an empirical demonstration of that approach using 15 years of data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics.  Findings indicate that rising disaster costs are contributing significantly to growing wealth inequalities along racial and class lines.  Findings also indicate that federal disaster assistance is exacerbating those trends.  The implication is that disasters do not simply reveal social inequalities, they contribute to them in ways that will play out long into future if business as usual continues.

Bio: Jim Elliott is a professor of sociology at Rice University. His scholarship focuses on urbanization, social inequality and the environment, with the latter conceptualized in both social and ecological terms. In both his research and teaching, Elliott uses Houston as a laboratory for advancing understanding of socio-environmental transformation and its unequal consequences. Some of his recent work has examined a range of topics, from racial inequalities in urban labor markets to social disparities in natural hazards recovery, hazardous waste accumulation, carbon emissions and industrial pollution. Elliott received his Ph.D. in sociology from the University of Wisconsin-Madison and trained as a postdoctoral fellow at the University of North Carolina’s Population Center. He served as advisor to the sociology program at the National Science Foundation and co-editor of Sociological Perspectives. He currently serves on the editorial board of the journal Demography, Socius, and City & Community.

Sponsored By: Natural Hazards Center, Department of Sociology (UCB)

Monday, September 21st 12:00 pm - 1:00 pm, Zoom link: https://cuboulder.zoom.us/j/98876839061 - email ibs-contact@colorado.edu for password.
Brian Marein

Presentation Video

Abstract: This paper assesses the role of public health in Puerto Rico during one of the fastest mortality transitions in history and the first outside of Europe and Western offshoots. Using newly digitized, municipal-level data from 1923 to 1945 in an event study framework, I show that public health units (PHUs, or county health departments) were responsible for most of the reduction in infant and tuberculosis mortality and one-third of the decline in general mortality during the first half of the transition—and did so without significantly increasing public expenditures. PHUs also reduced stillbirths and maternal mortality but had no effect on malaria mortality. More per capita nurses and midwives, but not sanitary inspectors, are associated with steeper declines in infant and maternal mortality, suggesting the importance of, e.g., home visits, prenatal clinics, and occupational licensing. These results challenge the emphasis in the literature on postwar economic growth as the catalyst for improvements in health and provide evidence of the efficacy of anti-tuberculosis measures (e.g., quarantine and contact tracing) before modern medicine. More broadly, this paper provides a window into historical public health in Latin America, since most countries subsequently established local health departments but did not publish reliable vital statistics

Bio: Brian Marein is a PhD candidate in the Department of Economics. His dissertation investigates the economic development of Puerto Rico after annexation by the United States in 1898 and considers the issues of urbanization, public health, economic growth, and investments in transport infrastructure. More generally, his research focuses on economic history, development, and urban economics, with a regional concentration in Spanish America. Previously, Brian served as a research assistant at the American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research and earned a BS in economics and Spanish from the Ohio State University in 2013.

Sponsored By: Population Program

Monday, September 14th 12:00 pm - 1:00 pm, Zoom link: https://cuboulder.zoom.us/j/98876839061 - email ibs-contact@colorado.edu for password.
Kyle Thomas

Presentation Video

Abstract: Several scholars have argued that rational choice theories offer an individual theory of action well-suited to link macro and micro determinants of behavior (e.g., Coleman, 1990). The argument is that selected structural characteristics influence individual behavior by affecting subjective expectations (i.e., perceptions) of potential outcomes resulting from an action, as well as individuals’ preferences (the weight that individuals place on those expectations when making behavioral choices). In this presentation, I discuss and empirically test a rational choice model that links objective and perceived structural characteristics at the macro level to the (dis)incentives thought to be considered in a potential offender’s choice calculus. I argue that characteristics associated with structural disadvantage are associated with information that “signals” to individuals that the risks and costs associated with arrest are low, while the potential rewards to crime are high. Further, I predict that those residing in areas characterized by structural, economic and educational disadvantage can shift individuals’ preferences associated with crime, leading individuals to be more tolerant of the risks and costs, and more responsive to the social and intrinsic rewards associated with offending. Using data from the Pathways to Desistance study, the results largely support the hypotheses: block group concentrated disadvantage is associated with lowered perceptions of arrest risk and informal social costs, but higher perceptions of anticipated social rewards. These effects, however, are almost entirely accounted for by individuals’ perceptions of neighborhood disorder and access to employment opportunities. The perceptual neighborhood measures are also associated with a greater tolerance for arrest risk and social costs, and a greater preference for the rewards associated with crime.

Bio: Kyle Thomas is an assistant professor in the Department of Sociology at the University of Colorado Boulder. He received his Ph.D. in Criminology and Criminal Justice from the University of Maryland in 2015. His research focuses on offender decision making, the influence of peers on offending, and testing criminological theories.


Monday, May 4th 12:00 pm - 1:00 pm, IBS Meetiing Room 155
Julie Demuth

We are canceling the remaining IBS Speaker Series for the Spring 2020 semester due to ongoing issues related to COVID-19. We apologize for any inconvenience and will update you if we are able to reschedule this event. We appreciate your patience as we navigate this unprecedented situation. You may find regular updates about the campus response to coronavirus and ways to protect yourself at colorado.edu/coronavirus. 

Bio: Julie Demuth is a research scientist at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) in the Mesoscale and Microscale Meteorology (MMM) Lab with the Weather Risks and Decisions in Society (WRaDS) research group. She has been working for nearly 15 years on integrating social science research with the meteorological research and practitioner communities. With a hybrid background in atmospheric science and in communication, Julie conducts research on hazardous weather risk communication, risk perceptions, and responses; her work is with both experts, such as weather forecasters, and members of the public. Her work centers on understanding how forecast information, in conjunction with other factors, influence what people think and feel and how they respond. Some of Julie’s current work includes (1) studying how people’s previous weather experiences change the way they perceive future weather risks, (2) analyzing Twitter data to understand people’s evolving risk assessments as hurricane and tornado threats unfold in space and time, (3) exploring people’s perspectives on probabilistic tornado warnings, and (4) identifying NWS forecasters’ interpretations of and needs for deterministic and ensemble guidance from convection-allowing models. Prior to being at NCAR, Julie worked for three years in Washington DC as a Program Officer at the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine for the Board on Atmospheric Sciences and Climate. Julie received her BS in meteorology from the University of Nebraska-Lincoln, her MS in atmospheric science from Colorado State University, and her PhD in public communication and technology from Colorado State University.

Light lunch served at 11:45.

Sponsored By: E&S

Monday, April 20th 12:00 pm - 1:00 pm, IBS Meeting Room 155
Rich Nielson (MIT)

We are canceling the remaining IBS Speaker Series for the Spring 2020 semester due to ongoing issues related to COVID-19. We apologize for any inconvenience and will update you if we are able to reschedule this event. We appreciate your patience as we navigate this unprecedented situation. You may find regular updates about the campus response to coronavirus and ways to protect yourself at colorado.edu/coronavirus.

Abstract: Why do states promote conspiracy theories? Previous scholarship has largely focused on the demand for conspiracy theories in democratic settings, neglecting the role that conspiracy theories play in autocracies.  We ask two questions about the supply of conspiracy theories in society.  Are conspiracy theories prevalent because of local culture or is their supply influenced by political leaders and institutions?  And if leaders and institutions matter, are state-promoted conspiracy theories best understood as messaging about elite fears and priorities, or as distraction to deflect criticism away from the regime?  To answer these questions, we develop a model for detecting conspiracy theories in the Arabic-language text of Egyptian newspapers.  We compare the supply of conspiracy theories in a state-owned Egyptian newspaper, al-Ahram, to an independent Egyptian newspaper, al-Masry al-Youm, between 2005 and 2015.  We find evidence that institutions matter: the content and prevalence of conspiracy theories varies by newspaper and changes as state institutions change.

Bio: Richard Nielsen is an Associate Professor of Political Science at MIT. He completed his PhD (Government) and AM (Statistics) at Harvard University, and holds a BA from Brigham Young University. His book, Deadly Clerics (Cambridge University Press), uses statistical text analysis and fieldwork in Cairo mosques to understand the radicalization of jihadi clerics in the Arab world. Nielsen also writes on international law, the political economy of human rights, political violence, and political methodology. Some of this work is published or forthcoming in The American Journal of Political Science, International Studies Quarterly, Political Analysis, and Sociological Methods and Research. In 2017-2019 he is an Andrew Carnegie fellow, and his work has previously been supported by the National Science Foundation, the Harvard Academy for International and Area Studies, and the Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs.

Light lunch served at 11:45.

View all past events